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Notation and Abbreviations in the Book
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A area; cross sectional area; amplification
a lattice parameter; acceleration; amplitude of vibrations; half-channel thickness in a JFET (Ch. 6)
a (subscript) acceptor, e.g. Na = acceptor concentration (m-3)
ac alternating current
ao Bohr radius (0.0529 nm)
AV, AP voltage amplification, power amplification
APF atomic packing factor
B, B magnetic field vector (T), magnetic field
B frequency bandwidth
Bc critical magnetic field
Bm maximum magnetic field
Bo, Be Richardson-Dushman constant, effective Richardson-Dushman constant
BC base collector
BCC body-centered cubic
BE base emitter
BJT bipolar junction transistor
C capacitance; composition; the Nordheim coefficient (W m)
c speed of light (3x108 m s-1); specific heat capacity (J K-1 kg-1)
Cdep depletion layer capacitance
Cm molar heat capacity (J K-1 mol-1)
Cdiff diffusion (storage) capacitance of a forward-biased pn junction
CB conduction band; common base
CE common emitter
CMOS complementary MOS
CN coordination number
CVD chemical vapor deposition
D diffusion coefficient (m2 s-1); thickness; electric displacement (C m-2)
d density (kg m-3); distance; separation of the atomic planes in a crystal, separation of capacitor plates; piezoelectric coefficient
d(subscript) donor, e.g., Nd = donor concentration (m-3)
dc direct current
dij piezoelectric coefficients
E energy; electric field (V m-1) (Ch. 9)
Ea, Ed acceptor and donor energy levels
Ec, Ev conduction band edge, valence band edge
Eex exchange interaction energy
EF, EFO Fermi energy, Fermi energy at 0 K
Eg bandgap energy
Emag magnetic energy
E electric field (V m-1)
Ebr dielectric strength or breakdown field (V m-1)
Eloc local electric field
e electronic charge (1.60218x10-19 C)
e (subscript) electron, e.g., me = electron drift mobility
eff (subscript) effective, e.g., meff = effective drift mobility
EHP electron-hole pair
EM electromagnetic
EMF (emf) electromagnetic force (V)
F force (N); function
f frequency; function
f(E) Fermi-Dirac function
FCC face-centered cubic
FET field effect transistor
G rate of generation
Gph rate of photogeneration
Gp parallel conductance (W-1)
g(E) density of states
g conductance; transconductance (A/V)
gd incremental or dynamic conductance (A/V)
gm mutual transconductance (A/V)
H, H magnetic field intensity (strength), or magnetizing field (A m-1)
h Planck's constant (6.6261x10-34 J s)
h Planck's constant divided by 2p (1.0546x10-34 J s)
h (subscript) hole, e.g., mh = hole drift mobility
hFE, hfe dc current gain, small signal (ac) current gain in the common emitter configuration
HCP hexagonal close-packed
HF high frequency
I electric current (A); moment of inertia (kg m2) (Ch.1)
I light intensity (W m-2)
Ibr breakdown current
IB, IC, IE base, collector and emitter currents in a BJT
i instantaneous current (A); small signal (ac) current, i = dI
i (subscript) intrinsic, e.g., ni = intrinsic concentration
ib, ic, ie small signal base, collector and emitter currents (dIB, dIC, dIE) in a BJT
IC integrated circuit
J current density (A m-2)
J total angular momentum vector
j imaginary constant
Jc critical current density (A m-2)
JFET junction FET
K spring constant (Ch. 1); phonon wavevector (m-1); dielectric constant (Ch. 7)
k Boltzmann constant (k = R/NA = 1.3807x10-23 J K-1); wavenumber (k = 2p /l), wavevector (m-1); electromechanical coupling factor (Ch. 7)
KE kinetic energy
L total orbital angular momentum
L length; inductance
l length; mean free path; orbital angular momentum quantum number
Lch channel length in an FET
Le, Lh electron and hole diffusion lengths
ln, lp lengths of the n- and p-regions outside depletion region in a pn junction
ln (x) natural logarithm of x
LCAO linear combination of atomic orbitals
M, M magnetization vector (A m-1), magnetization (A m-1)
M multiplication in avalanche effect
Mat relative atomic mass; atomic mass; "atomic weight" (g mol-1)
Mr remanent or residual magnetization (A m-1)
Msat saturation magnetization (A m-1)
m mass (kg)
me mass of the electron in free space (9.10939 x10-31 kg)
me* effective mass of the electron in a crystal
mh* effective mass of a hole in a crystal
ml magnetic quantum number
ms spin magnetic quantum number
MOS (MOST) metal-oxide-semiconductor (transistor)
MOSFET metal-oxide-semiconductor FET
N number of atoms or molecules; number of atoms per unit volume (m-3) (Chs. 7 and 9); number of turns of a coil (Ch. 8)
NA Avogadro's number (6.022x1023 mol-1)
n electron concentration (number per unit volume); atomic concentration; principal quantum number; integer number; refractive index (Ch. 9)
n+ heavily doped n-region
nat number of atoms per unit volume
Nc, Nv effective density of states at the conduction and valence band edges (m-3)
Nd, Nd+ donor and ionized donor concentrations (m-3)
ne, no refractive index for extraordinary and ordinary waves in a birefringent crystal
ni intrinsic concentration (m-3)
nno, ppo equilibrium majority carrier concentrations (m-3)
npo, pno equilibrium minority carrier concentrations (m-3)
NS concentration of electron scattering centers
nv velocity density function; vacancy concentration (m-3)
P probability; pressure (Pa); power (W) or power loss (W)
p, P electric dipole moment (C m)
p hole concentration (m-3); momentum (kg m s-1); pyroelectric coefficient (Ch. 7)
p+ heavily doped p-type
pav average dipole moment per molecule
pe electron momentum (kg m s-1)
PE potential energy
pinduced induced dipole moment (C m)
po permanent dipole moment (C m)
PET polyester, polyethylene terephtalate
PZT lead zirconate titanate
Q charge (C); heat (J); quality factor
Q' rate of heat flow (W)
q charge (C)
R gas constant (NAk = 8.31457 J mol-1 K-1); resistance; radius; reflection coefficient (Ch. 3); rate of recombination (Ch. 5)
R reflectance (Ch. 9)
r position vector
r radial distance; radius; interatomic separation; resistance per unit length
r reflection coefficent (Ch. 9)
RH Hall coefficient (m3 C-1)
ro bond length, equilibrium separation
rms root mean square
S total spin momentum, intrinsic angular momentum; Poynting vector (Ch. 9)
S cross-sectional area of a scattering center; Seebeck coefficient, thermoelectric power ( V m-1); strain (Ch.7)
Sband number of states per unit volume in the band
Sj strain along direction j
SCL space charge layer
T temperature in Kelvin; transmission coefficient
T transmittance
t time (s); thickness (m)
t transmission coefficient
tand loss tangent
TC Curie tempearture
Tc critical temperature (K)
Tj mechanical stress along direction j (Pa)
TC thermocouple
TCC temperature coefficient of capacitance (K-1)
TCR temperature coefficient of resistivity (K-1)
U total internal energy
u mean speed (of electron) (m s-1)
V voltage; volume; PE function of the electron, PE(x)
Vbr breakdown voltage
Vo built-in voltage
VP pnich-off voltage
Vr reverse bias voltage
u, v velocity (m s-1); instantaneous voltage (V)
mean square velocity; mean square voltage
udx drift velocity in the x direction
ue, urms effective velocity or rms velocity of the electron
uF Fermi speed
ug, vg group velocity
uth thermal velocity
VB valence band
W width; width of depletion layer with applied voltage; dielectric loss
Wo width of depletion region with no applied voltage
Wn, Wp width of depletion region on the n-side and on the p-side with no applied voltage
X atomic fraction
Y admittance (W -1);Young's modulus (Pa)
Z impedance (W); atomic number, number of electrons in the atom
a polarizability; temperature coefficient of resistivity (K-1); absorption coefficient (m-1); gain or current transfer ratio from emitter to collector of a BJT
b current gain IC/IB of a BJT; Bohr magneton (9.2732 x10-24 J T-1)
bS Schottky coefficient
g emitter injection efficiency (Ch. 6); gyromagnetic ratio (Ch. 8)
G, Gph flux (m-2 s-1), photon flux (photons m-2 s-1)
d small change; skin depth (Ch. 2); loss angle (Ch.7)
D change, excess (e.g., Dn = excess electron concentration)
2 2/x2 + 2/y2 + 2/z2
e eoer , permittivity of a medium (C V-1 m-1 or F m-1); elastic strain
eo permittivity of free space or absolute permittivity (8.8542x10-12 C V-1 m-1 or F m-1)
er relative permittivity or dielectric constant
h efficiency; quantum efficiency; ideality factor
q angle; an angular spherical coordinate; thermal resistance; angle between a light ray and normal to a surface (Ch. 9)
k thermal conductivity (W m-1 K-1); dielectric constant
l wavelength (m); thermal coefficient of linear expansion (K-1); characteristic length (Ch. 8)
m eoer, magnetic permeability (H m-1); chemical potential (Ch.5)
mo absolute permeability (4px10-7 H m-1)
mr relative permeability
mm magnetic dipole moment (A m2)
md drift mobility (m2 V-1 s-1)
mh , me hole drift mobility, electron drift mobility (m2 V-1 s-1)
n frequency (Hz); Poisson's ratio
p pi, 3.14159...
P Peltier coefficient (V)
r resistivity (W m); density (kg m-3); charge density (C m-3)
rE energy density (J m-3)
rnet net space charge density (C m-3)
rJ2 Joule heating per unit volume (W m-3)
s electrical conductivity (W-1 m-1); surface concentration of charge (C m-2) (Ch. 7)
sP polarization charge density (C m-2)
so free surface charge density (C m-2)
sS Stefan's constant (5.670x10-8 W m-2 K-4)
t time constant; mean electron scattering time; relaxation time; torque (N m)
tg mean time to generate an electron-hole pair
f angle; an angular spherical coordinate
F work function (J or eV); magnetic flux (Wb)
Fm metal work function (J or eV)
Fn energy required to remove an electron from an n-type semiconductor (J or eV)
c volume fraction; electron affinity; susceptibility (ce is electrical;cm is magnetic)
Y(x, t) total wavefunction
y(x) spatial dependence of the electron wavefunction under steady state conditions
yk(x) Bloch wavefunction, electron wavefunction in a crystal
yhyb hybrid orbital
w angular frequency (2pu); oscillation frequency (rad s-1)
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Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition - S. O. Kasap