Phase diagram of chocolate and vanilla. How much vanilla will chocolate take? Guesses? Can you use the Lever Rule? (Source: Kenneth A. Jackson at the University of Arizona. Courtesy of NASA)

A crystal with a dislocation (Courtesy of Dr. Sharon Cobb, NASA.)

Selected Photographs in Electronic Materials and Devices
Nobel Prize winners Alex Muller (left) and George Bednorz, seen here in the IBM-Zurich laboratories where they discovered the first high-temperature ceramic superconductor in April 1986 which pioneered the new era of superconductivity. (Courtesy of IBM Zurich Research Laboratories) [See Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, Chapter 9.]
HIGH-WIRE ACT: a lateral cross section of a high-temperature superconducting wire is magnified 300 times. Made by American Superconductor, the wire consists of superconducting filaments, each four micron thick, packed into hexagonal patterns. This approach makes what would otherwise be a brittle wire bendable and able to resist cracks. (From Scientific American, "Current Events", December 1993, Page 118.)
A contemporary transistor, shown in profile through a transmission electron microscope, measures about two micron across and has elements as small as 0.4 micron. (From article entitled "Toward Point One" in Scientific American, February 1995, Page 90.)
Photograph of a magnet levitating above a superconductor immersed in liquid nitrogen (77K). This is a Meissner effect. The superconductor is a perfect diamagnet and expels all external magnetic fields (From Paul C. W. Chu, "High-temperature Superconductors", Scientific American, September 1995.).
An STM image of graphite surface. White spots represents the carbon atoms (brighter regions represent higher STM tunneling currents). We can clearly see the hexagonal symmetry of atomic arrangements on the surface. Both y and x axes are in Angstroms. (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Carol E. Rabke, Senior SPM Scientist, Burleigh Instruments, Inc., New York.)
Photograph illustrates atomic resolution of a Si (111) surface. (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Carol E. Rabke, Senior SPM Scientist, Burleigh Instruments, Inc., New York.)

Highly magnified scanning electron microscope (SEM) view of IBM's six-level copper interconnect technology in an integrated circuit chip. The aluminum in transistor interconnections in a silicon chip has been replaced by copper that has a higher conductivity (by nearly 40%) and also a better ability to carry higher current densities without electromigration. Lower copper interconnect resistance means higher speeds and lower RC constants. (Photograph courtesy of IBM Corporation, 1997.)
SEM view of three levels of copper interconnect metallization in IBM's new faster CMOS integrated circuits (Photograph courtesy of IBM Corporation, 1997.)
Motorola's prototype flat panel display based on the Fowler-Nordheim field emission principle. The display is 14 cm in diagonal and 3.5 mm thick with a viewing angle of 160°. Each pixel (325 micron) in size uses field emission of electrons from microscopic sharp point sources (icebergs). Emitted electrons impinge on colored phosphors on a screen and cause light emission by cathodoluminescence. There are millions of these microscopic field emitters to constitute the image. (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Babu Chalamala, Flat Panel Display Division, Motorola.).
Left: A scanning electron microscope image of an array of electron field emitters (icebergs). Center: One iceberg. Right: A cross section of a field emitter. Each iceberg is a source of electron emission arising from Fowler-Nordheim field emission; for further information see B. Chalamala et al., IEEE Spectrum, April 1998, pp. 42-51. (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Babu Chalamala, Flat Panel Display Division, Motorola.)
A commercial thermoelectric cooler (by Melcor) - an example of a Peltier effect device. The device area is 5.5 x 5.5 cm (approximately 2.2 x 2.2 in). Its maximum current is 14 A; maximum heat pump ability is 67 W; maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold surfaces is 67 °C.
First point-contact transistor invented at Bell Labs. (Source: Bell Labs.)
The three inventors of the transistor: William Shockley, (seated), John Bardeen (left) and Walter Brattain (right) in 1948; the three inventors shared the Nobel prize in 1956. (Source: Bell Labs.)
The first monolithic integrated circuit, about the size of a finger tip, was documented and developed at Texas Instruments by Jack Kilby in 1958. The IC was a chip of a single Ge crystal containing one transistor, one capacitor, and one resistor. (Source: Texas Instruments)
This small neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet (diameter about the same as one-cent coin) is capable of lifting up to 10 pounds. Nd-Fe-B magnets typically have large (BH)max values (200-275 kJ m-3).
Superconductivity, zero resistance below a certain critical temperature, was discovered by a Dutch physicist, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, in 1911. Kamerlingh Onnes and one of his graduate students found that the resistance of frozen mercury simply vanished at 4.15 K; Kamerlingh Onnes won the Nobel Prize in 1913. (Source: © Rijksmuseum voor de Geschiedenis der Natuurwetenschappen, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrč Visual Archives.)
John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer, in Nobel Prize ceremony (1972). They received the Nobel Prize for the explanation of superconductivity in terms of Cooper pairs. (Source: AIP Emilio Segrč Visual Archives.)
A single crystal of silicon, a silicon ingot, grown by the Czochralski technique. The diameter of the ingot is 6 inches. (Courtesy of Texas Instruments.)
Atomic arrangements on a (111) surface of a Si crystal as seen by a surface tunneling microscope. (Source: Burleigh Instruments Inc.)
Magnetically operated Hall-effect position sensor as available from Micro Switch.
The strain gauge consists of a long, thin wire folded several times along its length to form a grid as shown and embedded in a self-adhesive tape. The ends of the wire are attached to terminals (solder pads) for external connections. The tape is stuck on the component for which the strain is to be measured.
Ali Javan and his associates William Bennett Jr. and Donald Herriott at Bell Labs were first to successfully demonstrate a continuous wave (cw) helium-neon laser operation (1960-1962). (Source: Bell Labs.)
A selection of ultrasonic transducers (piezoelectric effect devices). (Source: Valpey Fisher.)
Various quartz crystal "oscillators". Left to right: Raltron 40 MHz; a natural quartz crystal (South Dakota); Phillips 27 MHz; a cutaway view of a typical crystal oscillator.

Semiconductor Fabrication at Micron Technology
WAFER SAW: Each wafer is cut into many individual die using a diamond-edge saw with a cutting edge about the thickness of a human hair. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)
Memory chips are built layer by layer onto silicon wafers. A circuit pattern is photographed onto the wafer during the lithography process. This process, which leaves a hardened photoresist pattern is repeated once for each layer.The areas of the wafer not protected by hardened photoresist are etched with either plasma or wet chemical processes. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)
Finished wafers are mounted on a framed sticky tape. Wafer identification numbers are read and linked with frame numbers in the main computer system before the individual die are sawn apart. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)
A diamond edged saw blade cuts the wafers into the individual die. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)
A wire thinner than a human hair is soldered between the die and the lead frame in military assembly. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)
WIRE BOND Gold wire provides an electrical data transfer path between the die and the computer. The gold wire is fed through a ceramic capilarity, heated and forced down onto the bond path on the die and then onto the lead frame to form ball and stick bonds. (Photograph courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho)

Minerals of the Smithsonian
These specimens illustrate many of the most interesting features of minerals: brilliant colors, sculptural shapes, delicate crystal organization and a wide spectrum of textures. Back row left to right The structure of copper crystals is from Michigan. Next is wulfenite, a lead molybdate, from the San Francisco mine in Sonora, Mexico. The grey and white mass is coral replaced by chalcedony, a quartz, from Florida. Front row left to right From an unknown locality are the boxy, clear fluorite crystals across a yellow matrix. Next is a soft green emerald crystal from North Carolina. The red specimen is rhodochrosite from South Africa. The undulating, white, "ram's horn" gypsum is from Mexico.
Amber is the fossilized resin, or sap, of ancient conifers. The resin, often including insects or plant material, has fried and hardened over geologic time and can be polished, cut, and facetted as a gemstone. Amber is most commonly found on beaches around the Baltic Sea where it has been highly prized as a defense against evil. It is also found in the Dominican Republic and other localities worldwide. Amber, unlike inorganic gemstones, will burn if ignited and can be melted by high heat. In this photograph, necklaces with faceted and tumble polished beads are draped over a fine specimen of amber.
Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz. This specimen is from Las Vegas, Vera Cruz, Mexico. It is about one and a half inches tall.
Azurite: Named because of its distinctive rich blue color, azurite is a copper carbonate. This specimen is azurite with malachite.
Cerussite: These delicate crystals are from Flux Mine, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. This is a distinctive specimen from this mine.
Hope diamond is B doped in 106 which gives it the deep blue color. After shining UV light it glows in red/orange color - phosphorescence. The Hope diamond is reputedly linked to the famous "French Blue", which was brought to France from India in 1668 to become part of the crown jewels. The French Blue was stolen in 1792 and never recovered, but in 1830 an extraordinary 45.5 carat deep blue diamond came on the market. It was purchased by Henry Thomas Hope for whom it was named. In 1949 the gem was acquired from the estate of Mrs. Evalyn Walsh McLean by Harry Winston and in 1959 presented to the Smithsonian Institution.
Diamond in Matrix; Diamond mining processes usually crush surrounding material. This gem quality diamond, in its natural matrix of Kimberlite, a variety of peridotite, is very unusual.
Leaf Gold: Gold is a natural element prized for its natural beauty. Because of its malleability and softness, it has been crafted into coins and jewelry for centuries. This specimen of leaf gold weighs 14.6 ounces. It comes from the Eureka Mine, Tuolomne County, California and is one of the finest specimens of its kind.
Malachite: This specimen is from Zaire where malachite is frequently found. It is a copper carbonate which creates the green color. From the Canfield collection.
Rose Quartz and Quartz: The manner in which the rose quartz appears to wrap around the quartz makes this an unusual specimen. The rose quartz crystals are unusually large. This specimen is from Sapucaia Pegmatite, Brazil.
Rhodochrosite: The crystals in this specimen of rhodochrosite are of gem quality. It is from the N'Chwaing Mine, near Kurman, Cape Province, South Africa. The lovely rose color is typical of this mineral.
Smithsonite: This mineral is named for James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution. He was a well known chemist and mineralogist and he discovered the chemical properties of the mineral. This specimen is from the Kelly Mine in the Magdalene mining district, Socorro county, New Mexico.

Stibnite: This exceptionally fine specimen of Stibnite is from Japan. The vertical crystals are stibnite, while the smaller ones are quartz. Stibnite is a tin ore.

Tanzanite is a variety name which denotes the blue color of the mineral Zoisite. This specimen, about two inches high, is from Arusha, Tanzania. The two shades of blue appear because of the way in which light is absorbed by this specimen.
A McGraw-Hill Book with Web Resources
Click here to go to the homepage of Web-Materials

Materials and Devices Website for Scientists and Engineers

Serving scientists and engineers since 1996. Dedicated to continuing education.
Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition - S. O. Kasap